Blue catfish have eight whiskers (barbels) on their faces. 0000002036 00000 n Their abundance and firm tasty flesh make them a source of profit for several inland fisheries. At the same time, the study — which examined 16,110 blue catfish stomachs — cast doubt on the notion that they are voracious, ecosystem-altering predators. Chesapeake Bay Program. By Yama Barekzi; Maria Hawkins; Jacob Sheets, gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate), Guidelines for the culture of blue and channel catfish, http://blueocean.org/documents/2013/03/blue-catfish-chesapeake-bay-full-species-report.pdf, http://www.chesapeakebay.net/fieldguide/critter/blue_catfish, https://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/publications/pwdpubs/media/pwd_br_t3200_0236.pdf, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/202679/0, http://invasions.si.edu/nemesis/CH-IMP.jsp?Species_name=Ictalurus+furcatus, http://chesapeakebay.noaa.gov/fish-facts/invasive-catfish, http://dnr.wi.gov/topic/fishing/documents/species/catfish.pdf, http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/fishing/conditions/tidal-river-blue-catfish-report.pdf, © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. j7΋�xs�dۿˋ|)̫����� Guidelines for the culture of blue and channel catfish. at http://blueocean.org/documents/2013/03/blue-catfish-chesapeake-bay-full-species-report.pdf. Today, their habitat includes most rivers in California, Louisiana, and the Atlantic slope regions including the Rio Grande, James, Rappahannock, Mattaponi, York, Potomac, Patuxent, and Nanticoke Rivers. Bonvechio, T., B. Bowen, J. Mitchell, J. Bythwood. Range. Blobfish adaptations They really look like large, floral tadpoles, pale, jelly-like flesh with pale, loose skin, a big nose and a wide-eyed eyes. Blue catfish were observed to expand their range in Virginia tributaries when adult densities in tidal freshwater reaches were high and in years of high river flows or episodic flooding (Schloesser et al. makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds, eats mollusks, members of Phylum Mollusca. Body Shape Adaptations. (Bonvechio, et al., 2012; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994; Schloesser, et al., 2011; "Ictalurus furcatus", 2014; Wyatt, et al., 2006), Blue catfish populations generate important economic benefits in both recreational and commercial fishing. Males build nests and attract females using species-specific pheromones before they swim together in various patterns. Accessed Blue catfish have eight barbels (whiskers) positioned around their faces. 0000009771 00000 n This material is based upon work supported by the the area in which the animal is naturally found, the region in which it is endemic. During these times, they seek protected, slightly isolated, and covered areas such as in logs and under rocks. They provide adequate economic success and good sport fishing for many people. ("Blue catfish - Chesapeake Bay", 2014; "Invasive catfish", 2013; "Ictalurus furcatus", 2013; Schloesser, et al., 2011; "Ictalurus furcatus", 2014), Blue catfish prefer to live on the sandy bottoms of medium to large freshwater channels and pools that possess swift and well-flowing currents in depths greater than 6 meters. Barekzi, Y.; M. Hawkins and J. It is no accident that catfish can survive in such adverse conditions. April 20, 2014 Fry are very small and are easily preyed upon by other fish, so they feed nocturnally at low depths and near cover on zooplankton and aquatic insects. H�dUM��6��W̑dV�$J�-H�C��@b��M�D[�ʢARk�ϐ�]m�b�5�cތwO䛾��8���b��eR�����_p8�v5kx]C��;����mG2z�o�9����=g"��x��,�E����Ȥ�)� �_,� ���̰�� �bu^� +U�ZIp�*}�ƫ���pZ�Z��h�ᓷ�V���:�?�2���[Pݐa�+/Q�},��%�mͣ4��{�Z<. Enormous pigeon-eating catfish wreaking havoc on Europe’s ecosystems. Upon completing egg fertilization, male catfish chase the female away and guard, organize, and periodically ventilate eggs with their tails. This popularity has lead to a profitable business in guided fishing tours. The feeding nature of blue catfish is very opportunistic and can result in cannibalism. Help us improve the site by taking our survey. There have also been reports of blue catfish in the Burke and Brittle Lakes and far north in the Chesapeake Bay tributaries such as the Susquehanna River. American Fisheries Society Symposium, 77: 369–382. Texas: Inland Fisheries Division. They are neither threatened nor endangered according to the IUCN, United States Federal List, CITES, or the State of Michigan List. Color is another physical adaptation that can help creatures survive. The distribution and further range expansion of non-native blue catfish Ictalurus furcatus in coastal waters throughout the United States Atlantic slope depend, in part, on the salinity tolerance of the fish. ��G�Z�1�]����u�H��Xd��"�V��j���V+ן!�pƧx�������`�hrœn���麀��1�f�@��n��`l��{c[�]]F%��B�,���g ܦ#��C�u � �%d��" �gu� �Lۆ�>�)�*���_��x,���ߍnR�&��nH�`�5���uSHqmiR�4�{�7���'a7� 0000001929 00000 n 0000008286 00000 n "Ictalurus furcatus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. living in the Nearctic biogeographic province, the northern part of the New World. chemicals released into air or water that are detected by and responded to by other animals of the same species, breeding is confined to a particular season, reproduction that includes combining the genetic contribution of two individuals, a male and a female. Dire wolves were real—and even stranger than we thought. 2009 Proc. During spring, they may enter areas with little to no currents such as backwaters, sloughs, and reservoirs for nesting and reproduction. at http://www.chesapeakebay.net/fieldguide/critter/blue_catfish. In addition, they seek sturdy and stable surfaces to which their sticky eggs can properly adhere. Small channel cats typically will have spots lacking in small blue cats. Blue catfish (I. furcatus) brood fish are collected from the wild. humans benefit economically by promoting tourism that focuses on the appreciation of natural areas or animals. Smithsonian Environmental Research Center. Blue cats are often confused with channel catfish. trailer << /Size 86 /Info 55 0 R /Root 57 0 R /Prev 155191 /ID[<90bc12c3cae45f874c5636a26e1dd007><90bc12c3cae45f874c5636a26e1dd007>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 57 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 53 0 R >> endobj 84 0 obj << /S 239 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 85 0 R >> stream "��pm���2��O��qYa:•o�M4.�BQ��b���*"�W��ko��h��4�;%�W����&�1��� With this physical adaptation, the fish finds food that it can’t see in the darkness at the Hudson’s bottom. They are generally warmwater fish that live in ponds, lakes, or quiet, slow moving streams and rivers, but they ar… ("Blue catfish - Chesapeake Bay", 2014; "Blue catfish", 2012; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994), Blue catfish serve as predators and prey, providing food and selective pressure for the organisms that share their habitat. Hormonal pheromones also play a key role in reproduction and mating systems between blue catfish. You won't find many fish bigger than the blue marlin. 0000003169 00000 n They have similar characteristics as channel catfish; however, unlike channel catfish, blue catfish have no dark blue spots, possess a straight edged adipose fin, and usually have more than 29 rays in their anal fin. The blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) is the largest species of North American catfish, reaching a length of 165 cm (65 in) and a weight of 68 kg (150 lb).The typical length is about 25–46 in (64–117 cm). This species adjusts to water temperature changes and swims to warmer waters during the winter and cooler waters during the summer. ("Blue catfish - Chesapeake Bay", 2014; "Blue catfish", 2012; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994; "Maryland fish facts", 2014; Murdy, et al., 1997; "Invasive catfish", 2013; "Ictalurus furcatus", 2013), Blue catfish are included in family Ictaluridae, or bullhead catfishes, and have many characteristics shared by members of this family. These behaviors include biting, slamming into each other, and highly energetic swimming. During their early life, when they are smaller in size, they are hunted by other predatory fish such as flathead catfish and even their own species. In the in… The anal fin is long, possesses a straight distal margin, and contains between 27 to 38 rays, although the typical range is 30 to 36. H�lTKs�0��W�QfW��9�t:W©�Aq[`�A�¯gWr�z�ey��~��֨��n�����u��Lʴ�3��i�}�e%�zSU��"��ӊ����mVk|�3؞Vl�Gu��ʙ?���ih��N��3c?�gPv�l����bC�^Xo��D� Optimal temperatures for egg growth range between 25 to 27 degrees Celsius, while temperatures below 21 degrees tend to damage eggs and promote fungal growth, resulting in weak fry. Topics Although the exact habits of blue catfish hatchlings are unknown in the wild, in hatcheries the fry have been observed swimming in schools for several weeks before dispersing; however, this may occur for a shorter time in the wild. Description. 2012. "Ictalurus furcatus" (On-line). Blue catfish account for one third of the total recreational fishing efforts in Virginia, offering a market gain for environmental agencies and fisheries alike. However, as they age, they become larger than other predatory fish, resulting in less predation. Physical characteristics Like all native North American cat-fishes, a channel catfish has a body is located on the back between the dorsal and caudal fins (Fig. Yaqui chubs can be up to 5H inches (14 cm) long. Southeastern Naturalist, 11/2: 349-359. (Compare to phytoplankton.). This is most likely because each catfish species releases species-specific pheromones. Two barbels arise dorsally, from the nose, two extend from both corners of the mouth (one for each corner), and four protrude from the chin. 2013. Recognized for their large bodies that can weigh up to 100 pounds (45kg), blue catfish can reach two to five feet in length (600 to 1500mm). High parental investment from male blue catfish in the early stages of development increases the longevity of the young by making it difficult for predators to prey on the species at an early age. Accessed Non-indigenous range expansion of the blue catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) in the Satilla River, Georgia. "Ictalurus furcatus" (On-line). Recognized for their large bodies that can weigh up to 100 pounds (45kg), blue catfish can reach two to five feet in length (600 to 1500mm). However, only the Rio Grande population has dark spots on the back and sides. Y��@:M�\|*/�8�B�Ŧ����B4��j,�2�Ɍ�����{r/��m��,F:s�0�9�~�~H���rۂ����@\��w�������f �4fɫ�؇>/��(�4/�S;3]�����M��? Edwardsiella ictaluri causes white lesions on their backs and sides to form, and external hemorrhages under their bodies and around their mouths. Mostly, the study found, blue catfish are omnivores, eating whatever is abundant in the river. 0000002163 00000 n Blue catfish have a forked tail, and are sometimes very similar to channel catfish. Fish can also have disruptive markings to hide body parts. Sheets 2014. Blue catfish are an excellent food source for avian predators of the Chesapeake region and are also food sources for otters, and predatory fish like flathead catfish. �Vl�e�K����،��I�ƙ�]��2���D��_��[�?�. 2014. Blue catfish have a more migratory nature than other catfish and often travel long distances in pursuit of these locations. April 20, 2014 Further range expansion of blue catfish in other tributaries may ensue when similar conditions co-occur (high adult Catfish have strong sandpaper like teeth to swallow their food whole. Mating includes many chemical interactions between males and females. ]��e�O$l�:&+�s�8�� �7�����Lx��_��&ӽ��+4��a���加���%��R�h��{7�7Q�`�d�YxuE�R�����xP{��~ �����NE��Lme��c*q�^p���[|���h�/�����m������8�&��{C��K]�������а�Y١�QR�:\��HH��x;ae}��Z����z�$���7�����M April 20, 2014 This may allow the fish to avoid being seen by a predator. fertilization takes place outside the female's body. 2011. As adults, blue catfish serve as a food source for humans and birds. Blue catfish are highly productive and create high numbers of offspring each reproductive cycle. For more information check out our Texas State Junior Angler Record information. To help scientists and resource managers learn more about these fish, NCBO provided more than $1 million in funding for research projects to investigate blue catfish. Freshwater Fishes of Virginia. Grants DRL 0089283, DRL 0628151, DUE 0633095, DRL 0918590, and DUE 1122742. Their jaws contain small teeth. The fish can live to 20 years. This practice is the best strategy as long as suitable wild brood fish are readily available. Its smooth skin lacks scales. 0000008182 00000 n Ictalurus is Greek meaning "fish cat", and furcatus is Latin, meaning "forked", a reference to the species' forked tail fin. ("Blue catfish", 2012; Greenlee, 2011; Murdy, et al., 1997; "Ictalurus furcatus", 2014), Blue catfish commonly rest during the day near the bottom of deep, restrictive waters. Identification: A large, heavy-bodied catfish with a deeply-forked caudal fin.Color is pale blue to gray on the back and sides, fading to white on the lower sides and belly. Due to the rapid decline of these organisms, blue catfish have gained recognition as a detriment to their own ecosystem. 0000001342 00000 n physical adaptations. ("Blue catfish - Chesapeake Bay", 2014; Greenlee, 2011; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994), Sea and shorebirds, such as double-crested cormorants, willets, brown pelicans, and osprey, hunt small fish, including blue catfish. It has several desirable traits, including rapid growth, ease of spawning, tolerance to wide ranges of temperatures and water quality, good product quality and high consumer acceptance. nel catfish have been widely intro-duced throughout the United States and the world. Texas Parks and Wildlife. ��BM�6��,������)����Ț����I��{ӆc��ˣ��y�yU�a�f��_ �>�o endstream endobj 70 0 obj 873 endobj 71 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 70 0 R >> stream Broach, J., R. Phelps. What We Know About Blue Catfish. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. 1). Box 60, Murfreesboro, TN 37132 George D. Scholten, Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, P.O. They use a vigorous sweeping motion with their tails to clear debris and use their jaws to remove larger objects; their nests can range from 6 to 14 inches in diameter. It is similar to the Channel Catfish, but differs by having a long, straight-edged (vs. shorter, rounded) anal fin and no dark spots on the body.Adults can grow to about 5.5 ft. (150 lbs. In the lower Mississippi River, it moves farther down river where the water is warmest in winter, and it runs upstream in summer. SEAFWA Weight-length Relationships and Growth Data for Blue Catfish from Four Tennessee Waterbodies David R. Stewart, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, 601 West Woodward Avenue, Eustis, FL 32726 George W. Benz, Middle Tennessee State University, P.O. The tail fin, or caudal fin, is deeply forked and contains 16 branched rays with 6 soft rays. Jenkins, R., N. Burkhead. 2013. animals that use metabolically generated heat to regulate body temperature independently of ambient temperature. Males remain within the nest after eggs hatch to guard and direct the fry, leaving only when the fry completely absorb their yolk sacs. Specifically, the question was raised as to how catfish can survive in extremely muddy water. Convergent in birds. In our part of the country, blue catfish spawn in late spring or early summer, probably May and June. The Chesapeake Bay record is a blue catfish caught in the James River that was 102 pounds. 2012. While blue catfish can grow quite large, growth rates can vary considerably from individual to individual and few fish actually reach trophy sizes. (Holtan, 1998), Blue catfish have a well-developed system for communication based on the release of chemical pheromones and sensory organs. Not only are blue catfish used as sport fishes, they are also an important food source for more than sixteen states. 56 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 58 /H [ 1002 361 ] /L 156439 /E 10848 /N 14 /T 155201 >> endobj xref 56 30 0000000016 00000 n Chesapeake Bay Program. "Catfish" (On-line). Blue catfish become sexually mature between the ages of 4 to 7 years; at this time, they are generally 35 to 66 cm (14 to 26 in) long and weigh 2.3 kg. Regions native to blue catfish include the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio river basins and the Gulf of Mexico drainages that stretch north from Pennsylvania to South Dakota, and south to the Gulf Coast. at http://www.dgif.virginia.gov/fishing/conditions/tidal-river-blue-catfish-report.pdf. These characteristics include lack of scales, a single dorsal fin followed by an adipose fin just before the caudal fin, and a flat anal fin. The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. Introduced in several rivers, blue catfish have overcome the salinity barrier that was originally thought to prevent them from expanding in other rivers. Accessed 0000006157 00000 n In the James River, they can grow up to 3 pounds in the first 8 years, while in 11 years, they can reach 20 pounds. Many blue catfish grow to tremendous sizes; this in combination with their feeding style has lead to the belief that they exhibit adverse effects on other fish communities. 0000007174 00000 n The air bladder of blue catfish has a definite constriction giving it a two-lobed appearance, whereas the air bladder in channel catfish is without constriction. ("Blue catfish", 2012; Jenkins and Burkhead, 1994; "Maryland fish facts", 2014; Murdy, et al., 1997), After the spawning process, fertilized blue catfish eggs usually hatch in six to ten days depending on water temperature. During the first few years of development, blue catfish grow slowly; however, this rate typically increases with their size as they age. Other. Until then, fry remain in close proximity to their nest, which is guarded by the male. ("Ictalurus furcatus", 2013). Blue catfish spawn monogamously, mating with only one partner per yearly reproductive cycle. Attraction between male and female catfish occurs with the use of pheromonal cues. Bacteria including Aeromonas hydrophila, Flavobacterium columnare, and Edwardsiella ictaluri also impact catfish health. Its smooth skin lacks scales. … 0000008307 00000 n Their color is dark on top so predators in the air don't see them.It is light on it's belly so predators don't see them underwater. The blue catfish is a long fish with a flat dorsal fin and deeply forked tail. They seek low current areas with protective structures to better secure their eggs and rear their fry. However, blue catfish are healthy members of family Ictaluridae, with populations that are considered to be of least concern overall. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. However, channel catfish have relatively non-uniform growth rates, are adept at evading capture by seining and are susceptible to species-specific diseases. One caught in an inland lake on the Virginia–North Carolina border weighed 143 pounds. 2011. Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Blue Ocean Institute. Its tail is high and crescent-shaped. Blue catfish can grow to be larger than 100 pounds. Base of the world structures and rock piles that offer both cover and a place to rest without.. Which it is no accident that catfish can survive in such adverse conditions and sensory.... Species adjusts to water temperature 4,000 to 8,000 eggs, a silver-white belly and four pairs black. 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